jtotheizzoe
jtotheizzoe:

When you think about it, consuming the milk of other animals is a freakin’ weird thing to do. Curdling, flavoring, and aging it in order to make cheese? That’s even weirder. But cheese is delicious, so whether it’s weird or not I have no intention of stopping. How exactly does milk magically morph from liquid to solid?
The origin of cheese, as the legend goes, can be traced to one (un)lucky Middle Eastern shepherd, maybe as far back as 8000 BCE. Journeying across the arid plains and lacking a container to carry his milk in, this shepherd fashioned a canteen out of the stomach of one of his sheep. Later, when he went to take a sip of milk, all he found was curds… the chunky precursor to cheese.

To this day, the cheesemaking process begins in pretty much the same way as it did in 8000 BCE, only instead of relying on offal accidents, we employ some nifty biochemistry. 
To begin its leap toward immortality, milk first has to make the leap out of a cow, sheep, goat, or other grazing animal. Compared to human milk, the milk of these domesticated ruminants is extremely high in protein. For reasons that will become clear shortly, the low protein content of human breast milk is why you can’t make it into cheese, should you be so inclined (although I sincerely hope you are not so inclined).
The reason that milk curdles in ruminant stomachs is because of baby ruminants. Behold the four-chambered ruminant stomach:

When a cow drinks water, or when grazing on hard-to-digest grasses, they engage all four stomachs, but the microbes that live in the top three chambers would create a dangerously unbelchable amount of gas if they were allowed to drink milk. When suckling, calves instead engage a valve that sends the milk directly to the last of their four stomachs, the abomasum.

It is there that the sugar-, fat-, and protein-laden milk curdles, which our friend the shepherd found out the hard way when he used the abomasum for a canteen. Curdling is good for the calf, because as any parent of a newborn will tell you, milk has a tendency to go right through a baby’s digestive system, if you catch my dirty-diaper-drift. Solid milk curds take longer to pass through the digestive system, so more nutrients can be extracted from the milk.
Milk’s main protein, making up more than 80% of the total, is called casein. One particular form of this protein, kappa-casein, is basically the reason that cheese exists at all. Thank you, K-casein, we owe you big-time. 
K-casein isn’t very happy floating around in the aqueous environment of milk, though. Like a shark-attack survivor, it’s a bit hydrophobic. In order to hide from H2O, casein molecules huddle together in globs called micelles, binding up fat and calcium along with it. 

You’ll notice that casein is more than just the globby bits, though. Its tail (a “casein point”?), coated with sugars and hydrophilic amino acids, juts out from those micelles, caging the protein in a water-loving coat and keeping your milk from becoming a curdled mess… that is, until rennet comes along. 
Rennet, the mixture of enzymes added to cheese cultures to start the curdling process, was originally extracted from the stomach linings of young calves, although today it’s manufactured by genetically engineered microbes. One of those enzymes, chymosin, is what does the curdling in both calf stomachs and cheese houses.

Chymosin acts like a molecular pair of scissors, snipping off the water-loving tail of K-casein at a very specific spot (between amino acid 105, a phenylalanine, and 106, a methionine, if you’re a sucker for detail). Without that cage to keep the micelles dissolved in milk’s watery environment, the micelles clump together in massive knots called curds.

What happens to those curds next is an adventure all its own, and every type of cheese has its own well-aged story.
Whether or not the legend of the shepherd is true or just a cheesy myth, one thing is for certain: When it comes to cheese, the stomach isn’t just where cheese ends its journey, it’s also where it begins.
This post accompanies this week’s episode of It’s Okay To Be Smart on YouTube: The Science of Cheese! Watch it here to learn more about cheese-ology:

jtotheizzoe:

When you think about it, consuming the milk of other animals is a freakin’ weird thing to do. Curdling, flavoring, and aging it in order to make cheese? That’s even weirder. But cheese is delicious, so whether it’s weird or not I have no intention of stopping. How exactly does milk magically morph from liquid to solid?

The origin of cheese, as the legend goes, can be traced to one (un)lucky Middle Eastern shepherd, maybe as far back as 8000 BCE. Journeying across the arid plains and lacking a container to carry his milk in, this shepherd fashioned a canteen out of the stomach of one of his sheep. Later, when he went to take a sip of milk, all he found was curds… the chunky precursor to cheese.

To this day, the cheesemaking process begins in pretty much the same way as it did in 8000 BCE, only instead of relying on offal accidents, we employ some nifty biochemistry. 

To begin its leap toward immortality, milk first has to make the leap out of a cow, sheep, goat, or other grazing animal. Compared to human milk, the milk of these domesticated ruminants is extremely high in protein. For reasons that will become clear shortly, the low protein content of human breast milk is why you can’t make it into cheese, should you be so inclined (although I sincerely hope you are not so inclined).

The reason that milk curdles in ruminant stomachs is because of baby ruminants. Behold the four-chambered ruminant stomach:

When a cow drinks water, or when grazing on hard-to-digest grasses, they engage all four stomachs, but the microbes that live in the top three chambers would create a dangerously unbelchable amount of gas if they were allowed to drink milk. When suckling, calves instead engage a valve that sends the milk directly to the last of their four stomachs, the abomasum.

It is there that the sugar-, fat-, and protein-laden milk curdles, which our friend the shepherd found out the hard way when he used the abomasum for a canteen. Curdling is good for the calf, because as any parent of a newborn will tell you, milk has a tendency to go right through a baby’s digestive system, if you catch my dirty-diaper-drift. Solid milk curds take longer to pass through the digestive system, so more nutrients can be extracted from the milk.

Milk’s main protein, making up more than 80% of the total, is called casein. One particular form of this protein, kappa-casein, is basically the reason that cheese exists at all. Thank you, K-casein, we owe you big-time. 

K-casein isn’t very happy floating around in the aqueous environment of milk, though. Like a shark-attack survivor, it’s a bit hydrophobic. In order to hide from H2O, casein molecules huddle together in globs called micelles, binding up fat and calcium along with it. 

You’ll notice that casein is more than just the globby bits, though. Its tail (a “casein point”?), coated with sugars and hydrophilic amino acids, juts out from those micelles, caging the protein in a water-loving coat and keeping your milk from becoming a curdled mess… that is, until rennet comes along. 

Rennet, the mixture of enzymes added to cheese cultures to start the curdling process, was originally extracted from the stomach linings of young calves, although today it’s manufactured by genetically engineered microbes. One of those enzymes, chymosin, is what does the curdling in both calf stomachs and cheese houses.

Chymosin acts like a molecular pair of scissors, snipping off the water-loving tail of K-casein at a very specific spot (between amino acid 105, a phenylalanine, and 106, a methionine, if you’re a sucker for detail). Without that cage to keep the micelles dissolved in milk’s watery environment, the micelles clump together in massive knots called curds.

What happens to those curds next is an adventure all its own, and every type of cheese has its own well-aged story.

Whether or not the legend of the shepherd is true or just a cheesy myth, one thing is for certain: When it comes to cheese, the stomach isn’t just where cheese ends its journey, it’s also where it begins.

This post accompanies this week’s episode of It’s Okay To Be Smart on YouTube: The Science of Cheese! Watch it here to learn more about cheese-ology:

sotiredrightnow

geekifyinc:

Auryn pendants from The Neverending Story (available in two-tones and single-tones) http://www.etsy.com/shop/GeekifyInc

I am still so happy to see these pics pop up around Tumblr every now and then.  That first one especially is one of my favorites we’ve ever taken :)

robmeyer
robmeyer:

ingthing:

beamkatanachronicles:

thepurpleeyedone:

beamkatanachronicles:

thepurpleeyedone:

beamkatanachronicles:

appleseeddrama:

THEY HAVE THE ACE ATTORNEY OFFICIAL MANGA IN MY LAW LIBRARY I AM CRYING.



Your honor, something is amiss here!
As you are probably aware, library materials are labeled with barcodes as well as a number to determine their location on the shelf, as per the Dewey Decimal System. The books just to the left of the manga are labeled, as are the DVDs just in view on the lower shelf. Look even further behind these shelves and you’ll see that even those books are labeled! 
Ladies and gentlemen of the courtroom, I invite you to take a closer look at the volumes that are, allegedly, part of this law library! Something is missing from the spines, isn’t there?

Where are the bar codes?!
This is a blatant contradiction! The OP is lying— these volumes cannot, therefore, be a part of this library at all! I propose that they simply brought these materials in for the sake of the joke!! 


Only focusing on one aspect and not the whole of the issue, are we, Mr. Wright? Typical.

Your honor, if you bring your attention to the books just left of the manga, you’ll notice there’s a book (the second to the left) that also does not have a bar code.

If you examine the picture even closer—particularly the DVDs below—you’ll see that they bear bar codes, but not on the spines. No, they have them on the back and/or front of the DVDs. Of course, this method of labeling and organizing isn’t limited to products of the film industry alone.

Therefore, I’d like to propose that it is entirely possible that the manga books do, in fact, belong to the library!


Wh-WHAAAAT?! You’re kidding!! 
(Shoot, he’s got me there… Better think of something fast! Something about the books that sets them apart from—
…! I’ve got it!)
While that may be true, you’ve also overlooked one critical error: the titles of the books! Whether or not your hypothesis regarding the labeling system is correct, these titles aren’t alphabetized correctly! What kind of self-respecting librarian would misplace such vital books? 
Well, Edgeworth?



While it pains me to have to point out something so obvious, I suppose I’ll make an exception for you, Wright.
Clearly, one look at the titles of the books next to the manga is a tell-all of this certain library’s less-than-stellar organization skills. None of the books are in alphabetical order, I’m afraid.

They could very well be alphabetized by author and not title, but it’s a little difficult to be able to decipher that from this single picture, wouldn’t you say?
Furthermore, the manga books themselves are in numerical order, suggesting some kind of system is in place, albeit not a very good one, if the alphabetizing is off.

At the end of the day, it seems like neither of us can draw a clear conclusion from this evidence alone. Your honor, I strongly suggest a recess in which we could investigate the library itself further.

I see the issue here very clearly.
Due to the uncertain nature of this case, we’ll have to postpone this decision until more decisive evidence can be obtained. The court will now take a 15-minute recess.

(W-wait, but I’m not—)


WAIT!!!

I’ve got some decisive evidence for you, pal!

We investigated further into the photo. Zooming in, you can see a label on the DVD case to the bottom left.

Photo Close-up added to the court record!


As you can see, pal, you can vaguely see the words “Of Toledo Law Library” on the label!

And, considering possibilities of the rest of that label, “University of Toledo" was the first to come to my mind!
A quick search on the University of Toledo’s Online Law Library Database revealed that there ARE the comics pictured in it!
Miles Edgeworth Ace Attorney Investigations volumes 1-4 and Phoenix Wright Ace Attorney volumes 1-5!

And there’s more! 
The section these comics are filed under is the “Law in Popular Culture" Section, which matches up with the titles on the rest of the books on that shelf: "Lowering the Bar: Lawyer Jokes & Legal Culture”, “Prime Time Law”, “Lawyers in Your Living Room!" and "Lex Populi”!
Not only is it in the right section, it’s also a documented part of the Law Library’s database!
How’s that for decisive evidence?


beautiful

robmeyer:

ingthing:

beamkatanachronicles:

thepurpleeyedone:

beamkatanachronicles:

thepurpleeyedone:

beamkatanachronicles:

appleseeddrama:

THEY HAVE THE ACE ATTORNEY OFFICIAL MANGA IN MY LAW LIBRARY I AM CRYING.

image

image

Your honor, something is amiss here!

As you are probably aware, library materials are labeled with barcodes as well as a number to determine their location on the shelf, as per the Dewey Decimal System. The books just to the left of the manga are labeled, as are the DVDs just in view on the lower shelf. Look even further behind these shelves and you’ll see that even those books are labeled! 

Ladies and gentlemen of the courtroom, I invite you to take a closer look at the volumes that are, allegedly, part of this law library! Something is missing from the spines, isn’t there?

image

Where are the bar codes?!

This is a blatant contradiction! The OP is lying— these volumes cannot, therefore, be a part of this library at all! I propose that they simply brought these materials in for the sake of the joke!! 

Only focusing on one aspect and not the whole of the issue, are we, Mr. Wright? Typical.

Your honor, if you bring your attention to the books just left of the manga, you’ll notice there’s a book (the second to the left) that also does not have a bar code.

If you examine the picture even closer—particularly the DVDs below—you’ll see that they bear bar codes, but not on the spines. No, they have them on the back and/or front of the DVDs. Of course, this method of labeling and organizing isn’t limited to products of the film industry alone.

Therefore, I’d like to propose that it is entirely possible that the manga books do, in fact, belong to the library!

image

Wh-WHAAAAT?! You’re kidding!! 

image
(Shoot, he’s got me there… Better think of something fast! Something about the books that sets them apart from—

image
…! I’ve got it!)

While that may be true, you’ve also overlooked one critical error: the titles of the books! Whether or not your hypothesis regarding the labeling system is correct, these titles aren’t alphabetized correctly! What kind of self-respecting librarian would misplace such vital books? 

Well, Edgeworth?

While it pains me to have to point out something so obvious, I suppose I’ll make an exception for you, Wright.

Clearly, one look at the titles of the books next to the manga is a tell-all of this certain library’s less-than-stellar organization skills. None of the books are in alphabetical order, I’m afraid.

They could very well be alphabetized by author and not title, but it’s a little difficult to be able to decipher that from this single picture, wouldn’t you say?

Furthermore, the manga books themselves are in numerical order, suggesting some kind of system is in place, albeit not a very good one, if the alphabetizing is off.

At the end of the day, it seems like neither of us can draw a clear conclusion from this evidence alone. Your honor, I strongly suggest a recess in which we could investigate the library itself further.

I see the issue here very clearly.

image
Due to the uncertain nature of this case, we’ll have to postpone this decision until more decisive evidence can be obtained. The court will now take a 15-minute recess.

image

(W-wait, but I’m not—)

image

WAIT!!!

I’ve got some decisive evidence for you, pal!

We investigated further into the photo. Zooming in, you can see a label on the DVD case to the bottom left.

Photo Close-up added to the court record!

As you can see, pal, you can vaguely see the words “Of Toledo Law Library” on the label!

And, considering possibilities of the rest of that label, “University of Toledo" was the first to come to my mind!

A quick search on the University of Toledo’s Online Law Library Database revealed that there ARE the comics pictured in it!

Miles Edgeworth Ace Attorney Investigations volumes 1-4 and Phoenix Wright Ace Attorney volumes 1-5!

And there’s more! 

The section these comics are filed under is the “Law in Popular Culture" Section, which matches up with the titles on the rest of the books on that shelf: "Lowering the Bar: Lawyer Jokes & Legal Culture”, “Prime Time Law”, “Lawyers in Your Living Room!" and "Lex Populi”!

Not only is it in the right section, it’s also a documented part of the Law Library’s database!

How’s that for decisive evidence?

beautiful